(S.H.) entitled to be world heritage of UNESCO.Soltanieh primarily was used as hunting ground by Ilkhanate governors and then they decided to developed a city at this location. construction of this citadel began by order of Arghoon Khan and Ghazan Khan where terminated by Oljaitoo.After development of Kingdome citadel and Soltanieh dome, capital city was shifted from Tabriz to Soltanieh from 703 to 713 A.H.and Oljaitoo who had a rectangular form with dimensions of 296x 314 m and width of 3m having 16 towers and two north south gates where is made of lime stones in green color. North gate had been formal entrance while south gate was had been formal entrance while south gate was private one. Average height of citadel’s barrier is4m and there had been a fosse with 30to 40m width around citadel.Soltaneh city where was selected to be capital city at Oljaitoo reign after his demise faced to incline in popularity.Soltanieh dome has been erected inside the citadel. this three-storey building is consisted of three parts named house of dome, earth house and celluar.the most important part of citadel is Soltaniyeh dome where is burial location of Soltan Mohammad Khodabandeh is inside this place. This blue color dome has 485m height and it opening internal diameter is 25.5m and lands on a octagonal structure with 17m length of each side. The dominant material in this monument is brick. Innovation of double shell domes in Iran has been implemented for the first time in this structure. Outer shell is covered with mosaic inturquose color. There are embellishments and decorations with mosaic work, painting on gypsum, lattice brick, muqaenas.with plaster and brick, cornices on fabric, epigraphs of Quran verses and narratives in this monument. This dome had & points for muazzns at eight sides of dome to send prayer time announcement to all points of city.However,this part of complex has been ruined. All walls of dome has epigraphs which are ornamented by Quran verses&Imam names.Earthhouse is located at southern side and has dimension of 8x17m.Another part of this complex is cellar which is also located at southern side and beneath earth-house. Octagonal structure of this complex is a mistery.Since eight was not like7a sacred digit and using eight side in designing this building either is for reinforcement regards or this building was used to determine exact time similar to a sundial, however this issue needs to be more under investigation.Anyhow,this complex is an interesting &complete samples in architecture of Ilkhanate era.Soltanieh dome has been repaired several times at Safavid &Qajar era.Soltanieh dome after Santa Maria church in Florence of Italy (86m) and Hagia Sophia mosque in Istanbul(56m) is third highest dome in the world. This dome has been influenced world’s ancient monument’s architecture as a sample of Ilkhanate architecture and can be seen this impact in design of Santa Marya Delfioreh(saint and sacred Mary) in Florence where was constructed 100 years after Soltaniyeh dom.This citadel complex was ruined by Mughal invasion under command of Teimoor Goorkani,but he respected Sultan Mohammad Khodanandeh and keep his tomb intact
Edited by Ariasun editorial board
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